Characterization and Evaluation of Potential Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from <i>Guiera senegalensis</i> Leaf Extract


  • Ameh B. Amedu Department of Energy and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Life Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
  • Ahmad Uba Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnomedicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
  • Muhammad Chika Department of Energy and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Life Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
  • Wasagu R. S. Umar Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemical and Life Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo, University, Sokoto, Nigeria



Antibacterial, Green synthesis, Guiera senegalensis, Silver-nanoparticles, Gram-positive, Gram-negative


This study investigates Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel (Combretaceae), a widely acknowledged herb in Africa for its medicinal properties against various ailments, including fever, diarrhea, diabetes, dysentery, eczema, malaria, cough, tuberculosis, and its potential to enhance milk production in lactating women. The research focuses on utilizing Guiera senegalensis for synthesizing silver nano-particles (GS-AgNPs), due to its abundance in primary and secondary metabolites. The primary aim is to produce GS-AgNPs and assess their antibacterial efficacy. The synthesis of GS-AgNPs involved mixing a silver salt solution with the water leaf-extract. Characterization of the nanoparticles was conducted using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy with surface-plasmon-resonance (S-P-R) analysis at 390 nanometers (nm). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (F-T-IR) investigated the identity of the phytochemicals responsible for the green reduction of silver ions. X-ray diffraction (X-RD) confirmed the face-centered-cubic crystallinity of the GS-AgNPs with a mean size (33 nm). The antibacterial potential of GS-AgNPs was evaluated against both gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) and gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) using the Agar-well method. Results demonstrated the inhibitory effect of GS-AgNPs on microbial growth, with zone-of-inhibition (Z-OI) ranging from 4-7 millimeters (mm) to 16-19 mm at concentrations of 10 mg/cm³ and 20 mg/cm³, respectively. In comparison, the aqueous leaf extract exhibited Z-OI between 1.3-6 mm. GS-AgNPs displayed superior antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria when compared to the aqueous leaf extract.


Bachheti RK, Fikadu A, Bachheti A, Husen A. Biogenic Fabrication of Nanomaterials from Flower-based Chemical Compounds, Characterization and their various Applications: A review. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2020; 27(10):2551–2562.

Akter S, Huq MA. Biologically Rapid Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Sphingobium sp. MAH-11 T and their Antibacterial Activity and Mechanisms investigation against Drug-resistant Pathogenic Microbes. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2020; 48 (1):672–682

Hamouda RA, Hussein MH, Abo-Elmagd RA, Bawazir SS. Synthesis and Biological Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Derived from the Cyanobacterium oscillatoria limnetica. Sci Rep. 2019; 9(1): 13071

Kulkarni N, Muddapur U. "Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles: A Review", J Nanotechnol. 2014; 8 pages,

Jamkhande PG, Ghule NW, Bamer AH, Kalaskar MG. Metal Nanoparticles Synthesis: An Overview on Methods of Preparation, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Applications. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol. 2019; 53(7):101174.

Huq MA, Ashrafudoulla M, Rahman MM, Balusamy SR, Akter S. Green Synthesis and Potential Antibacterial Applications of Bioactive Silver Nanoparticles: A Review. Polymers. 2022; 14(4):742.

Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry, M. “Extracellular Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum,” Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2003; 28, (4):313–318. https;//

Huq MA. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pseudoduganella eburnean MAHUQ-39 and their Antimicrobial Mechanisms Investigation against Drug-Resistant Human Pathogens. Int J Mol Sci. 2020; 21(4):1510

Kedi PBE, Meva FE, Kotsedi L. Eco-friendly Synthesis, Characterization, in vitro and in vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Silver Nanoparticle-mediated Selaginella myosurus Aqueous Extract. Int J Nanomedicine. 2018; 13:8537–8548.

El-Naggar NE, Hussein MH; El-Sawah AA. Bio-fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles by Phycocyanin, Characterization, in vitro Anticancer Activity against Breast Cancer cell line and in vivo Cytotoxicity. Sci Rep. 2017; 7 (1):10844

Du J, Sing H, Yi TH. Antibacterial, Anti-biofilm, and Anticancer Potentials of Green Synthesized Silver 11.Nanoparticles using Benzoin gum (Styrax benzoin) extract. Bioprocess and Biosyst Eng. 2016; 39:1923–1931

Vigneshwaran N, Kathe AA, Varadarajan PV. Silver-protein (core-shell) Nanoparticle Production using Spent Mushroom Substrate. Langmuir. 2007; 23(13):7113–7117.

Anees-Ahmad S, Sachi-Das S, Khatoon A, Ansari MT, Afzal M, Saquib-Hasnain M, Kumar-Nayak A. Bactericidal Activity of Silver nanoparticles: A Mechanistic Review. Mat Sci Energy Technol. 2020; 3: 756–769

Jemal K, Sandeep BV, Sudhakar P. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Allophylus serratus Leaf and Leaf Derived Callus Extracts Mediated Silver Nanoparticles. J Nanomaterials. 2017; Article ID 4213275, 11 pages

Dirar AI, Devkota HP. Ethnopharmacological uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. (Combretaceae) J Ethnopharmacol. 2020; 267:113-433.

Hassan MG, Mohammed MF, Mogoro UJ, Omotainse SO, Ali AS, Malami AI, Shamsuddeen Y and Ugochinyere P.C. Phytochemical Analysis, Cytotoxcity and Antifungal Activities of Guiera senegalensis Leaves Extract Review. Chem Pharm Res. 2020; 2(1): 1-4.

Yahaya T, Kasimu S, Hanan I, Oladele E, Shemishere U. Toxicological Evaluation of the Leaves of Guiera senegalensis (J.F. Gme), Cassia occidentalis (Linn), and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam). Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci. 2019; 8:14. 9 pages.

Hamadnalla HMY, Hamad MAB, Adam AAI. Phytochemical Investigation, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anti-Diabetic Potential of Guiera senegalensis Leaves Extracts. J Pharmacol Pharmaceut Pharmacovig. 2020; 4: 015.

Ravichandrana V, Vasanthib S, Shalinic S, Syed A, Shahd A, Tripathyd M, and Paliwal N. Green Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Photocatalytic Activity of Parkia speciosa Leaves Extract Mediated Silver Nanoparticles. J Results Phys.2019; 15 (2019): 102565.

Liaqat N, Jahan N, Khalil R, Anwar T and Qureshi, H. Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles: Optimization, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Study by Hemolysis Assay. Front Chem. 2022; 10:952006.

Halilu EM, Ngweh VA, Airemwen CO. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Parinari curatellifolia Methanol Stem Bark Extract and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2023; 7(3):2498-2505

Acharya T. Preparation of McFarland Turbidity Standards [online]. 2022 (cited 2023 June 14) from:

Aziz N, Fatma T, Varma A, Prasad R. Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Scenedesmus abundans and Evaluation of their Antibacterial Activity. J. Nanoparticles. 2014; 1–6. doi:10.1155/2014/689419

Yusuf AJ, Abdullahi MI, Haruna AK, Musa, AM, Abdullahi, MS, Ibrahim ZYY, Halilu E, Odiba OJ. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluations of the Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Neocarya macropylla. J Chem Pharmaceut Res. 2015; 7(1):477-481

Sarwer Q, Amjad MS, Mehmood A, Binish Z, Mustafa G, Farooq A, Qaseem MF, Abasi F, Pérez de la Lastra JM. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles using Myrsine africana Leaf Extract for Their Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Phytotoxic Activities. Molecules. 2022; 27(21):7612.

Veerasamy R, Sethu V, Sivadasan S, Syed AAS, Rajak, H. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Atrocarpus altilis Leaf Extract and the Study of their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity, Mat Lett. 2016.

Krishnaraj C, Jagan EG, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan PT, Mohan N. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Acalypha indica Leaf Extracts and its Antibacterial Activity against Water-borne Pathogens. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2010; 76 (1): 50–56

Jyoti K, Baunthiyal M, Singh A. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. Leaves and their Synergistic Effects with Antibiotics. J Rad Research App Sci. 2016; 9(3);217–227

Ravikumar S, Angelo RU. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Acacia Nilotica Leaf Extract and Its Antibacterial and Anti-Oxidant Activity. Int J Pharmaceut Chem Sci. 2015 4 (4)

Rakesh B, Srinatha N, Rudresh KKJ, Madhu A, Suresh, KMR, Praveen N. Antibacterial Activity and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized via Plant and Invitro Leaf-derived Callus Extracts of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. South Afri J Bot. 2022; 148 (2022): 251-258.

Olufunto TJ, El Hadji MS, Sundararajan P, Vuyo M, Oluwatobi SO. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Combretum erythrophyllum Leaves and its Antibacterial Activities. J Colloids Interface Sci Commun. 2019; 31: 100191.

6Shankar PD, Shobana S, Karuppusamy I, Pugazhendhi A, Ramkumar VS, Arvindnarayan S, Kumar G. A Review on the Biosynthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles (Gold and Silver) using Bio-components of Microalgae: Formation Mechanism and Applications, Enzy Microbial Technol. 2016; 95: 28–44

Rhede DT, Guilger M, Bilesky JN, Germano-Costa T, Pasquoto-Stigliani G, Grillo, TBB, Carvalho RCDS, Fraceto LF, Lima R. Synthesis of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles using Althaea officinalis as Reducing Agent: Evaluation of Toxicity and Ecotoxicity. Sci Rep. 2018; 8:1–11

Gopinath V, Priyadarshini S, Priyadharsshini NM, Pandian K, Velusamy P. Biogenic Synthesis of Antibacterial Silver chloride Nanoparticles using Leaf Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Mat Let. 2013; 91: 224–227.

Ahmad N, Sharma S. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Extracts of Ananas comosus. Green Sustain Chem. 2012; 2: 141-147.

Panacek A, Kvytek L, Prucek R, Kolar M, Vecerova R. Silver Colloid Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and their Antibacterial Activity. J Physical Chem B. 2006; 110:16248–53.




How to Cite

Amedu, A. B., Uba, A., Chika, M., & Umar, W. R. S. (2024). Characterization and Evaluation of Potential Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from <i>Guiera senegalensis</i> Leaf Extract. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(5), 7285–7289.