Phytochemical Constituents, Anti-Diabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts of <i>Diospyros malabarica</i> (Desr.) Kostel Leaves and Stem Bark


  • Wening Dharmastuti Department of Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, 16424, Indonesia
  • Berna Elya Department of Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, 16424, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Hanafi Research Center of Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Traditional Medicine, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Serpong 15314, Indonesia
  • Puspa D. N. Lotulung Research Center of Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Traditional Medicine, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Serpong 15314, Indonesia



Anti-diabetic, Alpha-glucosidase, DPP-4, Antioxidant, Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel


Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel is widely used in traditional medicine as an antioxidant and anti-diabetic agent. This study aims to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, the antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities of the methanol leaf extract (MLE) and methanol stem bark extract (MBE) of Diospyros malabarica. The extracts were obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE). Phytochemical screening was done using standard methods. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau and Aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antidiabetic activity was assessed using α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitory assays. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the TPC (621.31 ± 0.74 mgGAE/g) and TFC (32.86 ± 0.31 mgQE/g) of MBE are 14 times higher than that of MLE with TPC and TFC of 42.83 ± 0.15 mgGAE/g, and 2.37 ± 0.02 mgQE/g, respectively. MBE also showed higher antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities than MLE. The IC50 values of MBE for DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and FRAP activities were 8.04 ± 0.05 µg/mL, 2.61 ± 0.03 µg/mL, and 6803.86 µMFSE/g, respectively. For the anti-diabetic activity, MBE had IC50 values of 14.36 ± 0.21 µg/mL, and 205.39 ± 2.94 µg/mL for α-glucosidase, and DPP-4 inhibitory activities, respectively. Therefore, the stem bark of D. malabarica has better anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities than the leaves, and thus has a potential for use as an antioxidant and anti-diabetic agent.

Author Biography

Muhammad Hanafi, Research Center of Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Traditional Medicine, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Serpong 15314, Indonesia

Department of Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pancasila University, South Jakarta, Jakarta, 12640, Indonesia


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How to Cite

Dharmastuti, W., Elya, B., Hanafi, M., & Lotulung, P. D. N. (2024). Phytochemical Constituents, Anti-Diabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts of <i>Diospyros malabarica</i> (Desr.) Kostel Leaves and Stem Bark. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(5), 7249–7258.

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