Analysis of Antioxidant Activities, Bioactive Compound Content, and Cytotoxic Effects of Green Oak and Red Oak Lettuce from Hydroponic and Organic Cultivation Systems

Authors

  • Noppakun Pakdeenarong Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand
  • Kwanyuen Leamsamrong Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat MahaSarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44000, Thailand
  • Vijitra Luang-In Natural Antioxidant Innovation Research Unit, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v8i5.17

Keywords:

Flavonoid, Antioxidant activity, Hydroponic lettuce, Cytotoxicity

Abstract

The antioxidant properties of Lactuca sativa var. crispa L. (green oak and red oak lettuce) grown under hydroponic and organic cultivation systems were compared using water and ethanol extraction. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was implemented to explore the cytotoxicity of hydroponically grown green oak and red oak lettuce ethanolic extracts toward the human liver cancer HepG2 cell line. Total flavonoid content (TFC) in hydroponic green and red oak lettuce aqueous and ethanolic extracts was higher than in organically grown lettuce. The TFC of hydroponic red oak lettuce extracted with ethanol was 2.92±0.10 mg GAE/g DW, higher than organically grown (1.73± 0.09 mg GAE/g DW). The total phenolic content (TPC) of organic lettuce was higher than lettuce grown hydroponically. Antioxidant potential was assessed by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The antioxidant potential of organic lettuce extracts was higher than hydroponically grown lettuce, indicating that the action of the hydroponic system enhanced flavonoid contents, with hydroponic extracts inhibiting cancer cell growth. The green oak lettuce extract had a moderate cytotoxic effect (IC50= 93.81±1.94 µg/mL), significantly stronger than the extract of red oak (IC50= 347.50±8.39 µg/mL) exhibiting a very weak effect.  Results showed that the hydroponic cultivation system stimulated the production of flavonoids and enhanced the cytotoxicity of plant extracts toward the HepG2 cell line.

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Published

2024-05-30

How to Cite

Pakdeenarong, N., Leamsamrong, K., & Luang-In, V. (2024). Analysis of Antioxidant Activities, Bioactive Compound Content, and Cytotoxic Effects of Green Oak and Red Oak Lettuce from Hydroponic and Organic Cultivation Systems. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(5), 7161–7165. https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v8i5.17

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