Prostaglandin Synthesis Inhibitory Activity of <i>Heliotropium indicum</i> L. (Boraginaceae) and HPLC-DAD Analysis


  • Onoja O. Joel Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria.
  • Ugwu C. Maryann Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria.
  • Olawuni J. Idowu Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
  • Okafo S. Eziuzo Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Ejike O. Okpala Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.


High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection, Cyclooxygenase-2, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Boraginaceae, Heliotropium indicum, Dysmenorrhoea


Dysmenorrhea a painful gynecological problem reported by women in their reproductive years, is a common condition and is refers to painful menstruation with severe cramping affecting the lower part of the abdomen caused by excessive prostaglandin production within secretory endometrial cell. Already existing drugs have numerous limitations. The objective of the study is to evaluate the cyclooxygenase inhibitory and radical scavenging potential of Heliotropium indicum L. (Boraginaceae) in the management of dysmenorrhea. The entire dried Heliotropium indicum plant was extracted by successive extraction procedure. Cyclooxygenase assay was carried out using COX-2 Test kit and ABTS assay was also carried out using ABTS Radical cation decoloration assay. HPLC-DAD was used to detect polyphenolic molecules. In cyclooxygenase assay, methanol extract showed highest anti-inflammatory activity with the lowest IC50 of 0.553±0.05 mg/mL when compared with Ibuprofen (IC50 of 0.065±0.00 mg/mL) at 1-0.03125 mg/mL, n-hexane and ethyl acetate have IC50 of 0.782±0.01mg/mL and 0.608±0.01mg/mL, respectively. Heliotriopium indicum extract also showed an antioxidative activity when tested with ABTS radical cation decoloration with ethyl acetate having the highest activity (IC50 of 0.315±0.00 mg/mL) when compared with Trolox (IC50 of 0.034±0.00 mg/mL) at 1-0.03125 mg/mL. Tannic acid, naringenin, garlic acid, quercetin, maleic acid and saponin were identified from HPLC-DAD analysis at various concentration. Heliotriopium indicum has the potential to prevent the production of excessive prostaglandin by its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2. Therefore, could be a source of new COX-2 inhibitors.


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How to Cite

Joel, O. O., Maryann, U. C., Idowu, O. J., Eziuzo, O. S., & Okpala, E. O. (2023). Prostaglandin Synthesis Inhibitory Activity of <i>Heliotropium indicum</i> L. (Boraginaceae) and HPLC-DAD Analysis: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(10), 4973–4979. Retrieved from