Biochemical Effects of Fermentation on Selected Phytochemicals, Enzymes and Antioxidant Activities in The Under-Utilized Seeds of <i>Chrysophyllum albidum</i> Linn and <i>Terminalia catappa</i> Linn
Keywords:antioxidant, digestive enzymes, antinutrient reduction, fermentation, Terminalia catappa, Chrysophyllum albidum
Chrysophyllum albidum Linn and Terminalia catappa Linn are both tropical plants. Fruits from these plants are eaten because of their edibility and delicious taste, and the seeds being under-utilized are mostly discarded. As the quest for food security increases, food processing methods that can improve under-utilized seeds for edibility are needed. This study’s aim was to examine the outcome of fermentation on the phytochemical and antinutrient constituents of these seeds. Their in vitro antioxidant and enzyme activities were also studied. Tannin, phytate, alkaloid and oxalate levels decreased significantly in the two seeds after fermentation (p<0.05). Fermented extracts from the seeds significantly decreased (p<0.05) in their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. C. albidum seeds significantly increased (P<0.05) in ferric reducing assay property (FRAP) only, T. catappa seeds however showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in TAC and FRAP at the end of fermentation. A remarkable reduction (P<0.05) was detected in the α-amylase activity of the fermented seeds of C. albidum, while a significant elevation (P<0.05) in the α-amylase activity of the fermented T. catappa seeds manifested. Lipase activity increased significantly (P<0.05) in the fermented seeds of both species. Significant elevation (P<0.05) of protease activity also manifested in the fermented C. albidum seeds. The distinct reduction in antinutrient status of the seeds, coupled with the increased digestive enzymes activities, was shown during fermentation, thus indicating fermentation as a tool to enhance the edibility and health outcomes of these under-utilized seeds.
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