Antidepressant Activity of Ethanol Extract and Residual Aqueous Fraction of Carissa edulis (Apocynaceae) Root Bark in Mice

Jamilu Ya’u1*, Sani Malami2, Mohammed A. Abugi1, Hyelnaya E. Ngura1
1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2347011289286
Recieved Date: August 10, 2017; Accepted Date: September 06, 2017; Published Date: 09 September 2017
Citation: Ya’u J, Malami S, Abugi MA, Ngura HE. Antidepressant Activity of Ethanol Extract and Residual Aqueous Fraction of Carissa edulis (Apocynaceae) Root Bark in Mice. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research 2017; 1(3):129-132. https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v1i3.9
Copyright: © 2017 Ya’u et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Carissa edulis (Vahl) (family, Apocynaceae) is used traditionally for the management of headache, chest pain, gonorrhea, rheumatism, epilepsy and some mental illness. This study was aimed at evaluating the antidepressant activity of the ethanol extract of Carissa edulis root bark and its residual aqueous fraction. Two experimental animal models namely Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST); using mice as experimental animals were used. The extract in FST exhibited dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the duration of immobility at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg (55.3 ± 5.24 s, 28.7 ± 1.39 s and 22.7 ± 1.52 s, respectively) when compared to the control group (57.1 ± 5.93 s). For the TST, the extract produced dose-dependent decrease (92.1 ± 4.66 s, 75.3 ± 4.22 s and 63.0 ± 2.47 s at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively) however, only 20 mg/kg of the extract and imipramine (10 mg/kg), produced significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the duration of immobility when both were compared to the control group (94.0 ± 9.79 s). However, there was no significant activity for the residual aqueous fraction (RAF) at all the tested doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg), in both FST and TST; but the activity was significant (p < 0.05) with imipramine (10 mg/kg) as compared with the control group. The ethanol root bark extract of the plant possesses bioactive principles with antidepressant activity.

Keywords: Antidepressant, Carissa edulis, Imipramine, Forced swim test Tail suspension test
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