Standardization, Chemical Composition and Antipyretic Evaluation of the Methanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae)

Felix A. Onyegbule1, Chidinma J. Ezenwa2, Stella O. Bruce2, Blessing O. Umeokoli1
1Department of Pharmaceutical & Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Anambra State, Nigeria.
 2Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Anambra State, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348037450936
Recieved Date: September 23, 2019; Accepted Date: June 28, 2020; Published Date: 02 July 2020
Citation: Onyegbule FA, Ezenwa CJ, Bruce SO, Umeokoli BO. Standardization, Chemical Composition and Antipyretic Evaluation of the Methanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(6):216-222.   https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i6.1
Copyright: © 2020 Onyegbule et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Alternative antipyretic agents are needed to circumvent the toxicities associated with current agents. Chrysophyllum albidum leaves are used ethnomedicinally in pyrexia treatment. There is a need to evaluate this claim scientifically, its composition and establish its pharmacognostic standards. In this study, a 1 kg of dried pulverized C. albidum leaves was cold macerated in methanol for 72 hours and evaporated in vacuo. Approximately 40 g of this extract was reconstituted and fractionated exhaustively using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water successively to obtain the respective fractions. The extract was subjected to acute toxicity, proximate, phytochemical and antipyretic evaluations. The fractions were also evaluated for antipyretic activity. The extract and fractions were also subjected to HPLC analysis. The LD50 was 2739 mg/kg. The leaf has low ash value (8.50%), moisture content (4.70%) and water extractive value (15.13%). The leaf extract contained trace alkaloids (2.2%) and tannins (1.13%); with moderate flavonoids (10.6%) and saponins (13.65%). The antipyretic study revealed that the 500 mg/kg of methanol extract and butanol fraction had mild antipyretic activity. The HPLC analysis suggested the presence of nigricinol, dinonedimethoxyketal, indo-3-carbaldehyde, isorhamnetin-3-O-retinol, 1-hydroxy-3, 4-dihydronorharmane, pestalotiolactone A and nidulalin B from methanol extract.  Presence of citrinin hydrate and pestalotiolactone A was suggested in the n-hexane fraction; expansol B and citreonigrin E in the ethyl acetate fraction and septicine in the butanol fraction. The study results support the ethnomedicinal use of C. albidum leaves for fever treatment.

Keywords:
Antipyretic, Fever, Chrysophyllum albidum, Toxicity, Proximate analysis.

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