Anti-Ulcer activity of methanol extract of Plantago rugelii Decne. (Plantaginaceae)

Cyril Ogbiko1*, Jonathan C. Eboka2, Ighodaro Igbe3, Dabai M. Usman1
1Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author: [email protected]
ABSTRACT

In spite of the increase in the use of herbal medicines, there are inadequate research on their effectiveness and toxicity. Plantago rugelii is commonly used in Nigeria folk medicine as an antimicrobial agent and topical agent for open wounds amongst others. This study investigated the phytochemical composition, quantitative proximate parameters, acute toxicity and the anti ulcer capabilities of the whole plant consisting of the roots, stem and leaves using various experimental animal models and established methods. Results confirmed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, carbohydrate, reducing sugars, deoxy sugars, phytosterols, protein and flavonoids. Moisture content (39.64 ± 1.09 %), total ash (17.22 ± 0.22 %), water insoluble ash (6.27 ± 0.18 %), acid insoluble ash (4.93 ± 0.36 %), alcohol soluble extractive (0.98 ± 0.04 %) and water soluble extractive (0.25 ± 0.06 %) values were obtained from the quantitative proximate analysis. An infusion of the whole plant (200 and 400 mg/kg) protected against gastric ulceration induced by aspirin and HCl in 60 % (v/v) ethanol in the animals. A higher dose of 400 mg/kg body weight from 200 mg/kg body weight of the plant infusion produce a correspondingly higher gastric ulcer protective activity. There were no mortality at 8 g/kg p.o after 24 hours and no sign of delayed toxicity or mortality after 14 days of observation. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that P. rugelii can protect against aspirin and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in experimental animals.

Keywords: Plantago rugelii, methanol extract, toxicity, phytochemical, anti-ulcer
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