Extraction and Characterization of the Gum Exudate of Anacardium occidentale for its potential as an Excipient in Drug Delivery Systems

Modupe O. Ologunagba¹*, Sanyog Jain2, Kaushik Thanki2, Sarasija Suresh3, Sharon Furtado4, Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike1, Silva B. Olanrewaju1
1Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos. Nigeria.
2Centre of Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery, Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Mohali, Chandigarh, Punjab, India.
3Drug Design and Development, Department of Pharmaceutics, M.S.Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bangalore, India.
4Department of Pharmaceutics, M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bangalore, India.
Corresponding Author: [email protected]
ABSTRACT

Natural polymers are preferentially used over synthetics as excipients in formulation systems. Characterization of a polymer is essential to determine its suitability as an excipient. This study aimed at extraction and characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) gum for its potential as an excipient in drug delivery systems. Anacardium occidentale gum (AoG) sourced from South West Nigeria was extracted from the dried stem bark exudate gum using a modified established method. Physicochemical, pharmacognostical and solid state parameters were characterized. Extraction yield was high (72%w/w); it had desirable organoleptic properties, moisture content (9.32% ± 0.03), total ash values (2.00% ± 0.00), acidic pH (5.0), low swelling capacity (3.71 ± 0.04) swelling index (2.37 ± 0.073), hydrated to form gel (hydrogel). Phytochemical studies of AoG showed absence of tested bioactive substances; Magnesium ion was the predominant amongst its divalent metallic ions content, it did not contain hazardous lead ion. The FTIR spectrum established its polysaccharide nature as stretches of alkanes, alkynes, alcohols, phenols, phenyl, acetyl, carboxylic acids, carboxylate, ethers, aldehydes and ketones functional groups were observed, hence modifiable. Morphological structure revealed sharp irregular discrete particles with size range of 79.4 µm and 144 µm. Powder diffraction pattern showed the existence of two prominent peaks at 13.50 and 19.2 0 2 Theta, AoG thermal analysis showed that it is thermally stable. AoG had good and desirable physicochemical properties such as hydrogel formation which could be employed either as a matrix layer former or carrier agent in drug delivery

Keywords: Natural Polymer Gum, Anacardium occidentale, Characterizations, Excipient Potentials, N
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