Acute Toxicological Evaluations of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Justicia flava (Vahl) Acanthaceae in Mouse Models

Enitome E. Bafor1*, Faith Ukpebor1, Osemelomen Omoruyi1, Ejiro Ochoyama1, Kevin Odega2
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
2Department of Histopathology and Morbid Anatomy, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City Nigeria.
Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348099187555
Recieved Date: April 08, 2019; Accepted Date: May 06, 2019; Published Date: 07 May 2019
Citation:  Bafor EE, Ukpebor F, Omoruyi O, Ochoyama E, Odega K. Acute Toxicological Evaluations of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Justicia flava (Vahl) Acanthaceae in Mouse Models. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(4):138-144. https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v3i4.6
Copyright: © 2019 Bafor et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Justicia flava is used traditionally for several ailments including preterm births prevention in Africa. The study’s objective was to evaluate the acute toxicity profile of J. flava (MJF) (family: Acanthaceae) in mice. The acute toxicity was performed with a limit dose of 5 g/kg of the extract. A 24 h and 14 d single dose study was performed. Control and treated groups of 5 animals each were used. The control animals received 10% tween 80 while the treated group received 5 g/kg of the freshly-prepared extract. The animals were weighed and parameters such as mortality, behavioural and weight changes, injury, signs of illness were observed daily. At the end of each study, haematological analysis, and histopathological examination of the uterus, kidney, liver and heart tissues were performed. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) observed in the organs, and body weights in both 24 h and 14 d study. Platelets count was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after 24 h while lymphocyte counts were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after 14 d. There were no gross lesions on the tissues after 24 h but mild congestion of the blood vessels was observed on the kidney and liver tissues with mild vascular stenosis observed on the heart. No mortality was however recorded. This study therefore, suggests that short-term oral administration of high dose MJF may not result in death but may cause mild haemorrhage in some organs. Lower doses of the plant extract are therefore suggested for use.

Keywords: Justicia flava, Toxicity, Weight, Histology, Haematology, Acanthaceae.
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