Evaluation of Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera Root in Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Sanusi A. Umar1*, Zainab Mohammed1, Aliyu Nuhu1, Kabir Y. Musa1, Yusuf Tanko2
1Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria.
2Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348032707288
Recieved Date: July 29, 2018; Accepted Date: August 09, 2018; Published Date: 10 August 2018
Citation: Umar SA, Mohammed Z, Nuhu A, Musa KY, Tanko Y. Evaluation of Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera Root in Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2018; 2(8):401-408.  https://doi.org//10.26538/tjnpr/v2i8.6
Copyright: © 2018 Umar et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Moringa oleifera is traditionally used for treatment of diarrhea, diabetes mellitus, rheumatism, venomous bites, for cardiac stimulation and as a diuretic. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The root was extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol successively using soxhlet apparatus. All the extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening and toxicity study. The powder and methanol extracts were subjected to anti-diabetic evaluation using alloxan-induced diabetes in rats for 28 days. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. The anti-diabetic effect of the extract was evaluated by measuring changes in blood glucose level, haematological indices, biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers and pancreatic tissue. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides and saponins. LD50 was above 5000 mg/kg and did not cause mortality in all the tested rats. Both the methanol extract and powdered root showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in blood glucose level after treatment. Also, the concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased significantly (p<0.05) as compared with the diabetic control. Histopathological examination of the pancreas from diabetic rats showed degenerative changes in ?-cells. In the treatment groups, there was a significant reversal to the damage done to the islet of Langerhans. This study has shown that M. oleifera root possesses hypoglycaemic effect and ameliorates other adverse diabetic conditions imposed by alloxan-induced diabetes on the experimental rats.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Hypoglycaemic, Alloxan, Oxidative stress, histopathology.
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