Evaluation of Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicities and the Effect of Ointment Bases on the Antimicrobial Potency of the Ethanolic Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia Leaf and Terminalia superba Stem Bark

Nwamaka H. Igbokwe, Eneje P. Echezonachi, Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike, Abel O. Idowu
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Idi-Araba, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348023328323
Recieved Date: June 25, 2018; Accepted Date: July 08, 2018; Published Date: 08 July 2018
Citation: Igbokwe NH, Echezonachi EP, Azubuike CP, Idowu AO. Evaluation of Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicities and the Effect of Ointment Bases on the Antimicrobial Potency of the Ethanolic Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia Leaf and Terminalia superba Stem Bark. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2018; 2(7):370-374.  https://doi.org//10.26538/tjnpr/v2i7.12
Copyright: © 2018 Igbokwe et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

The problem of resistance of dermatological infections to some antimicrobial agents available in the market has constrained man to search for newer compounds of natural origin with potent antimicrobials. Alchornea cordifolia leaf and Terminalia superba stem bark are used in African folkloric medicine and have been documented to have antimicrobial properties. It is important to ascertain the potency of their extracts against microorganisms, their toxicities and the type of ointment base most suitable for the formulation of these plant extracts into topical antimicrobials. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ointment bases on the antimicrobial potency of the ethanolic extracts of A. cordifolia leaf and T. superba stem bark. The in - vitro antimicrobial activity of the extracts and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined against some microorganisms using the agar diffusion method. The physical properties of the creams formulated with these extracts were evaluated using standard procedures. The extracts exhibited good antibacterial activity. The MIC (mg/mL) of A. cordifolia extract against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were 12.8, 12.8, 25.6 and 12.8, respectively. The MIC (mg/ mL) of T. superba extract against B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were 25.6, 25.6, > 25.6 and 25.6, respectively. The topical formulation prepared using the soft water washable base released antibacterial activity of the extracts better than the formulations prepared using other bases. The soft water washable base is the most suitable ointment base for topical antimicrobials formulation of the extracts.

Keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, Terminalia superba, Antimicrobial potency, Ointment bases.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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