Larvicidal Assessment of Fractions of Aristolochia albida Rhizome on Culex quinquefasciatus

Hauwa S. Usman*, Abdullahi B. Sallau, Aliyu Salihu, Andrew J. Nok
Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348069676503
Recieved Date: April 18, 2018; Accepted Date: May 07, 2018; Published Date: 10 May 2018
Citation: Usman HS, Sallau AB, Salihu A, Nok AJ. Larvicidal Assessment of Fractions of Aristolochia albida Rhizome on Culex quinquefasciatus. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2018; 2(5):227-234.
Copyright: © 2018 Usman et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Aristolochia albida is a plant, native of Africa that has found various applications including anti-parasite and anti-snake venom. In the present study, Aristolochia albida rhizome was extracted successively with chloroform and methanol by maceration technique. The extracts were tested for their larvicidal activity against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, according to WHO guidelines for larvicidal bioassay, with slight modifications. Fractionation of the chloroform extract was carried out using column chromatography. Larvicidal bioassay was carried out on the fractions obtained and the most potent fraction (fraction S) was further analyzed using preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and characterized using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopic analyses. Chloroform extract showed the highest mortality (100%) at 25 ppm, with LC50 and LC90 values of 4.24 ppm and 7.59 ppm. Fractionation of the chloroform extract of Aristolochia albida rhizome yielded 180 fractions. Fraction S was the most potent fraction having the lowest LC50 value (1.12 ppm). Preparative TLC profile of fraction S yielded five distinct spots (S1-S1a, S2-S2a and S3). Assessment of the larvicidal activity of the fractions confirmed that they act in a synergistic manner. Likely compounds identified using GC-MS were columbin, benzene acetaldehyde, oleic acid, naphthalene and fucosterol. FTIR analysis identified some functionalities, such as, alcohols, aromatics and carboxylic acids. It was concluded from the present study that chloroform extract and fractions of Aristolochia albida possess larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

Keywords: Plant extracts, Larvicidal activity, Aristolochia albida, Culex quinquefasciatus.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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