Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Topical Gels Containing Acalypha wilkesiana

Ubani-Ukoma N. Uloma1, Ilomuanya O. Margaret1*, Amos I. Salem1, Aboh Mercy2, Katibi S. Oludolapo3, Azubuike P. Chukwuemeka1, Salawu A. Oluwakayinsola4
1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Nigeria. 
2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRID), Abuja Nigeria 
3Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular diseases, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
4Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
5Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research & Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +234 8033290577
Recieved Date: 21 May 2021; Accepted Date: 22 August ; Published Date: 03 September
Citation: Ubani-Ukoma UN, Ilomuanya MAO, Amos SI, Aboh M, Katibi OS, Azubuike CP, Salawu OA. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Topical Gels Containing Acalypha wilkesiana. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(5):1470-1477. http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i8.24
© 2021 Ubani-Ukoma et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Traditional medicines used in developing countries in the treatment and management of diseases are mostly used in their crude forms, consequently, users are exposed to unwanted toxic effects due to no dosing standards and/or poor packaging. This study aims to formulate Acalypha wilkesiana leaves known for its antimicrobial properties into an appropriate conventional topical gel and standardize the formulation for possible use in the treatment of superficial skin infections. The minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility tests of methanol extracts of the red and green variants of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were determined against select bacteria and fungi. The physical and microscopic properties, stability and compatibility of the extracts in different topical gels such as hydrogels, bigels and organogels were investigated and the effective strength of the extract for incorporation into the appropriate gel form was determined using antimicrobial sensitivity studies. The organogel was the most appropriate gel form for incorporation of the methanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana. Both variants of Acalypha wilkesiana showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus albus and antifungal activity against Microsporum canis and Malassezia furfur. Both were inactive against Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum. The red Acalypha variant showed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella oxytoca at a concentration of 125 mg/mL in the organogel. A topical organogel compatible with the two variants of Acalypha wilkesiana was developed and the antimicrobial assay showed potential therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of microbial skin infections caused by common skin pathogens.

Keywords: Acalypha wilkesiana, Topical gels, Skin infections, Organogel.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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