Preliminary Investigation of the Possible Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Extract of Callichilia subsessilis Stapf. (Apocynaceae)

Samuel O. Onoja1*, Elizabeth O. Ikwuagwu2, Ihechiluru I. Ezeigbo1, Kelechi G. Madubuike1, Yusuf N. Omeh2, Aruh O. Anaga1,3, Maxwell I. Ezeja1
1Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, PMB 7267, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
2Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, PMB 7267, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
3Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. 

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348030613032
Recieved Date: December 06, 2017; Accepted Date: January 01, 2018; Published Date: 07 January 2018
Citation: Onoja SO, Ikwuagwu EO, Ezeigbo II, Madubuike KG, Omeh YN, Anaga AO, Ezeja MI. Preliminary Investigation of the Possible Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Extract of Callichilia subsessilis Stapf. (Apocynaceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2018; 2(1):34-37.  https://doi.org//10.26538/tjnpr/v2i1.7
Copyright: © 2018 Onoja et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Callichilia subsessilis (Apocynaceae) is commonly found along the coast of West Africa. In South Eastern Nigeria, it is believed to be useful for medicinal purposes and mostly used by traditional bone setters especially in Ozuitem of Abia state. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential of extract of Callichilia subsessilis leaf were investigated. Cold maceration method was used in the extract preparation. The scavenging of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used in the evaluation of antioxidant activity. Formalin- and egg albumin-induced paw oedema was used in the anti-inflammatory test while acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick test were used in the antinociceptive test. The extract was dissolved in 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and was tested at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1. The negative control group received 5 mL kg-1, 5% DMSO (vehicle) while acetyl-salicylic acid (aspirin) (200 mg kg-1) and pentazocine, 5 mg kg-1 (tail flick test) were used as the reference drugs. The extract produced concentration-dependent antioxidant activity that competes with ascorbic acid. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited formalin- and egg albumin-induced paw oedema in a dose- and time-dependent manner when compared with the vehicle-treated group. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced pain sensation in both antinociceptive models used. The activities of the extract (100 mg kg-1) were comparable with the reference drugs used in all the models. In conclusion, this study provided the pharmacological basis for the use of Callichilia subsessilis in the traditional management of inflammatory conditions. 

Keywords: Callichilia subsessilis, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, paw oedema, pentazocine, writhing refle
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