Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Methanol Leaf Extract of Croton lobatus (Euphorbiaceae) in Rodents

Sherifat Anafi1*, Abdullahi Yaro2, Medinat Abbas-Yakubu1, Amos Yakubu1
1Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Main Campus, PMB 1045, Samaru, Zaria 810271, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmacology Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348039183849
Recieved Date: August 02, 2017; Accepted Date: November 18, 2017; Published Date: 05 December 2017
Citation: Anafi S, Yaro A, Abbas-Yakubu M, Yakubu A. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-infalammatory Activities of Methanol Leaf Extract of Croton lobatus (Euphorbiaceae) in Rodents. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2017; 1(6):255-258. https://doi.org//10.26538/tjnpr/v1i6.6
Copyright: © 2017 Anafi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Croton lobatus (Euphorbiaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant found throughout the West African region. The leaves of the plant are used in Senegal for treating whooping cough and to assuage the pain of scorpion sting in Nigeria. The methanol leaf extract of Croton lobatus (MLECL) was evaluated for possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and rats. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract were carried out. Acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and formalin-induced pain in rats were used to evaluate the analgesic activity using piroxicam and morphine as standard drugs, while the effect of the extract on acute inflammation was investigated using albumin-induced paw oedema in rats at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of the extract. The LD50 of the extract in mice was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, resins, steroids and carbohydrates. The extract significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited acetic acid induced writhing in mice and significantly (p < 0.01) attenuated the neurogenic phase of formalin-induced pain in rats at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg). The extract also produced a significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at all the doses tested (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). The results obtained in this study revealed that MLECL possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and supported the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: Croton lobatus, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Methanol extract, Euphorbiaceae
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