Phytochemical Analysis and Hypoglycaemic Activity of the Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf (Apocynaceae)

Osamuyi H. Uwumarongie1*, Nkem D. Onwukaeme1, Ighodaro Igbe2
1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348036700935
Recieved Date: September 04, 2017; Accepted Date: October 18, 2017; Published Date: 05 November 2017
Citation: Uwumarongie OH, Onwukaeme ND, Igbe I. Phytochemical Analysis and Hypoglycaemic Activity of the Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf (Apocynaceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2017; 1(5):213-216. doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v1i5.8 https://doi.org//10.26538/tjnpr/v1i5.8
Copyright: © 2017 Uwumarongie et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Staph. (Apocynaceae) stem bark is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of diabetes. This study determined the phytochemical constituents and evaluate the methanol stem bark extract for acute toxicity and hypoglycaemic activity in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical analysis was done using standard methods. Acute toxicity was evaluated by administering 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 g/kg body weight of extract to rats. Diabetes was induced by administering a single dose of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (i.p) and the hypoglycaemic effects of daily doses of 125, 500 and 1000 mg/kg extract, orally administered to fasted normal and diabetic rats for 14 days, were monitored at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h, as well as on days 7 and 14. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids. The extract at a dose of 4 g/kg, caused neither death nor any observable symptoms of toxicity after 24 h and then, for 14 days. In non-diabetic rats, doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg extract produced significant reductions (p < 0.05) in blood glucose at 8 h and 2 h, respectively. In diabetic rats, doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg extract caused significant reductions (p < 0.05) at 4 h and 2 h, respectively, with maximum effect at 12 h. In both, the effect of the extract was found to be dose-dependent. In conclusion, this study revealed that the methanol stem bark extract of T. pachysiphon possessed hypoglycaemic effects, thus validating the ethnomedicinal claims of the plant.

Keywords: Tabernaemontana pachysiphon, acute toxicity, hypoglycaemic effect, phytochemicals
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