Ulcer-Protective Property of Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf Extract and their Phytosomal Formulations

doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i12.29

Authors

  • Emenike B. Amadi Ethnopharmacology, Food and Drug Delivery Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria
  • Emmanuel C. Ossai Ethnopharmacology, Food and Drug Delivery Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria
  • Obiora C. Ugwu Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria
  • Valentine O. Nwanelo Ethnopharmacology, Food and Drug Delivery Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria
  • Chioma A. Anosike Ethnopharmacology, Food and Drug Delivery Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria
  • Petra O. Nnamani Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine Research Group, Public Health and Environmental Sustainability Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutics Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Okwesili F. C. Nwodo Ethnopharmacology, Food and Drug Delivery Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria

Keywords:

Bryophyllum pinnatum, Phytosome, In vitro drug release, Ulcer inhibition

Abstract

Active phytoconstituents usually exhibit robust in vitro pharmacological properties that do not
correspond proportionately to the in vivo clinical benefits owing to their low gastrointestinal
absorption. To improve on the bioavailability of the plant natural products, a strategy to
enhance their in vivo absorption is developed via novel formulation of phytosome – a
phospholipid-phytoconstituent complex. This study formulated Bryophyllum pinnatum extract
into phytosome, evaluated and compared the ulcer-protective properties of the phytosome and
the Bryophyllum pinnatum free extract in indomethacin-induced ulcerative animal ulcer model.
Phytosomal formulations of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves were prepared by combination of
ethanol extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum and phosphatidylcholine (phospholipon® 90H) in
different ratios of 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5, respectively. The phyto-phospholipid complexes were
evaluated for some physical and chemical properties, which include entrapment efficiency,
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and in vitro drug release. Standard laboratory
methods were employed in the phytosome formulation, evaluation and ulcer-protective studies.
Ulcer protective studies were carried out using 400 mg/kg of phytosome and crude extract. All
the phytosomal formulations showed increased drug release profile in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8)
when compared to the free extract. At 400 mg/kg, the complexes significantly (p < 0.05)
improved ulcer-protective property and oxidative stress parameters when compared to the free
extract, and hence, could be a better form for ulcer management.
Key words: , , , 

References

Esther OF, Wisut W, Olatumide AF, David AA, Craig AO. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical screening of aqueous methanol extracts of eight Nigerian medicinal and aromatic plants. J Pharm Res. 2016; 10(7):523-532.

Essex MN, Zhang RY, Berger MF, Upadhyay S, Park PW. Safety of celecoxib compared with placebo and nonselective NSAIDs: cumulative meta-analysis of 89 randomized controlled trials. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2013; 12 (4):465-477.

Ojewole JA. Antihypertensive properties of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken leaf extracts. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:34-38.

Ursula VM, Nathalie P, Lukas R, Roland Z. Intravenous tocolysis with Bryophyllum pinnatum is better tolerated than beta agonist application. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006; 124:168-172.

Julia MF, Lorena MC, Eduardo PA, Estela MG, Matheus FF, Silvana MZ. Kalanchoe Laciniata and Bryophyllum pinnatum: an updated review about ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Braz J Pharmacogn. 2019; 29:529-558.

Igwe SA and Akunyili DN. Analgesic effects of aqueous extracts of the leaves of B. Pinnatum. Pharm Biol. 2005; 43(8): 658 - 661.

Gupta R, Lohani M, Arora S. Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extracts/fractions of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2010; 3(1):16-18.

Ofokansi KC, Esimone CO, Anele CK. Evaluation of the in vitro combined antibacterial effect of the leaf extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Fam: Crassulaceae) and Ocimum gratissimum (Fam: labiatae). Plant Prod Res J. 2005; 9:23- 27.

Okwu DE. Nigerian medicinal plant 11. Med Aromat Plant Sci Biotechnol. 2007; 1(1):97-102.

Arun KB, Sachin KS, Barinder K, Saurabh S. Review on phytosomes: Novel approach for herbal phytochemicals. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2017; 10(10):41-47.

Mei L, Qiujun Q, Xiang L, Xinrong L, Jing S, Cunyang W, Xiangyun L, Yihui D, Yanzhi S. Phyto-phospholipid complexes (phytosomes): A novel strategy to improve the bioavailability of active constituents. Asian J Pharm Sci. 2019; 14(3):265-274.

Ravi GS, Chandur V, Shabaraya AR, Sanjay K. Phytosomes: An advanced herbal drug delivery system. Int J Pharm Res Biol Sci. 2015; 4(3):415-432.

Sofowora A. Screening Plants for Bioactive Agents. In: Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. (2nd ed). Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd; 1993. 134-156 p.

Trease GE, Evans WC. Text Book on Pharmacognosy. (15th ed). London: Sauder’s publishers. 2002; 42-44, 221- 239, 246-249, 304-306, 331-332, 391-393p.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. (3rd ed). New York: Chapman and Hall. 1998; 88-185p.

Maiti K, Kakali M, Arunava G, Bishnu PS, Pulok KM. Curcumine phospholipid complex: preparation, therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats. Int J Pharm. 2007; 330:155-163.

Khalid ME. Maximizing the encapsulation efficiency and the bioavailability of controlled-release Centrizine microspheres using Draper-lin small composite design. Drug Des Deve Ther. 2016; 10:825- 839.

Zhang J, Tang Q, Xu X, Li N. Development and evaluation of a novel phytosome-loaded chitosan microsphere system for curcumin delivery. Int J Pharm. 2013; 448:168-17.

United State Pharmacopoia. Rockville: United State pharmacopeia Convention, 2007.

Lorke D. A New approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol. 1983; 55:275-287.

Urushidani T, Kasuya Y, Okabe S. The mechanism of aggravation of indomethacin induced gastric ulcer by adrenalectomy in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1979; 89:775-779.

Main IH and Whittle BJ. Investigation of the vasodilatorb and anti-secretory role of prostaglandins in the rat gastric mucosa by use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Br J Pharmacol. 1975; 53:217-224.

Kulkarni SK. Experiments on intact preparations (in–vivo studies). Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. (3rd ed). Vallabh Prakashan: Delhi. 1999; 148-164 p.

Paglia, DE and Valentine WN. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med. 1967; 70:158-163.

Aebi HE. Catalase. In “Method of Enzymatic analysis”, VCH, Weinheim: Germany-Deerfield, F.L. 1983; 273-286p.

Arthur JR and Boyne R. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in neutrophil from selenium deficient and copper deficient cattle. Life Sci. 1985; 36:1569-1575.

Wallin B, Rosengren B, Shertzer HG, Camejo G. Lipoprotein oxidation and measurement of TBARS formation in single microlitre plate; it’s use for evaluation of antioxidants. Anal Biochem. 1993; 208:10-15.

Latif A, Ashiq K, Qayyum M, Ashiq S, Ali E, Anwer I. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of the medicinal herb: Bryophyllum pinnatum. J Anim Plant Sci. 2019; 29(6):1528-1534.

Kanika P. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves. J Adv Sci Res. 2011;2(1):42-49.

Shahira FE, Adel AA, Mohamed AR, Nermeen MK. Nanosized soy phytosome based thermogel as topical antiobesity formulation: an approach for acceptable level of evidence of an effective novel herbal weight loss product.Int J Nanomed. 2018; 13:307-318.

John Coates. Interpretation of Infrared Spectra, A Practical Approach. In Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 2000. 10815-10837.

Singh C, Bhatt TD, Gill MS, Suresh S. Novel rifampicin phospholipid complex for tubercular therapy: synthesis, physicochemical characterization and in-vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm. 2014; 460(1-2):220-227.

Esther OF, Liqing W, Shaobo L, Armando GM, Craig AO. Phytochemical analyses from the Leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Eur J Med Plants. 2016; 14(3):1-10.

Aysegul K and Fatih T. Phyto-phospholipid complexes as drug delivery system for herbal extracts/molecules. Turk J Pharm Sci. 2015; 12(1):93-102.

Chandrasekaran AR. Importance of in -vitro in -vivo studies in pharmaceutical formulation development. Der Pharmacia Sinica. 2011; 2(4):218-240.

Houpan S, Meiyan Z, Xiaojuan C, Xinyi C, Jun P, Ye L, Rong Y, Xiong C, Qinghua P. Antiulcerogenic Activity of Li-Zhong Decoction on Duodenal Ulcers Induced by Indomethacin in Rats: Involvement of TLR-2/MyD88 Signaling Pathway. Evid-Based Compl Altern Med. 2020;

:14.

Muhammed AV, Thamotharan G, Sengottuvelu S, HajaSherief S, Sivakumar T. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Ficus pumila L. leaf extract in albino rats. Glol J Res Med Plant Indig Med. 2012; 1(8):340-351.

Syed AR and Syed AA. Anti-ulcer activity of Nardostachys jatamansi against pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer. SJAMS. 2016; 4(8E):3048-3053.

Baigent C, Blackwell L, Collins R. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease. Collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomized trials. Lancet. 2009; 373:1849-1860.

Bhattacharyya A, Chattopadhyay R, Mitra S, Crowe SE. Oxidative Stress: An essential factor in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal mucosal diseases. Physiol Rev. 2014; 94(2):329-354.

Basiviredy J, Jacob M, Ramamoorthy P, Pulimood AB, Balasubramanian KA. Indomethacin-induced free radicalmediated changes in the intestinal brush border membranes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003; 65:683-695.

Bilal A, Hira A, Ijaz J, Tanweer K, Ahmad R, Shamshad H. Gastro protective potential of Artemisia parviflora on aspirin induced gastric ulcers in albino rabbits. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2017; 11(44):561-566.

Orisakeye OT, Oladoye SO, Peters OA. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum root. Nat Prod Chem Res. 2015; 3:173-183.

Downloads

Published

2020-12-01

How to Cite

Amadi, E. B., Ossai, E. C., Ugwu, O. C., Nwanelo, V. O., Anosike, C. A., Nnamani, P. O., & Nwodo, O. F. C. (2020). Ulcer-Protective Property of Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf Extract and their Phytosomal Formulations: doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i12.29. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 4(12), 1201–1207. Retrieved from https://www.tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/910

Most read articles by the same author(s)