Evaluation of In vivo and In vitro Screening of the Antitrypanosomal Properties of Methanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of Trichilia heudelotii Oliv. (Meliaceae)

doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i12.28

Authors

  • Izuchukwu F. Okpalanwaka Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001 Enugu, Nigeria
  • Ifeyinwa C. Adaka Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001 Enugu, Nigeria
  • Philip F. Uzor Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001 Enugu, Nigeria
  • Ngozi J. Nwodo Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001 Enugu, Nigeria

Keywords:

Trichilia heudelotti, Antitrypanosomal activity, Diminazene aceturate, African trypanosomiasis, Cytotoxicity

Abstract

Trypanosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease with high morbidity and mortality particularly in the tropics. Trichilia heudelotii Oliv. (Meliaceae) is an important medicinal plant used widely in ethno medicine in treatment of wound sores, gastro-intestinal complaints, dizziness and parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the antitrypanosomal potentials of methanol extract of T. heudelotii using Swiss mice. The antitrypanosomal activity of the methanol extract of T. heudelotii leaf (METH) was investigated using rapid matching method in mice. Cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal test were also done using the extract and fractions. Phytochemical screening was done using standard procedures. The extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), diminazene aceturate as positive control (3.5 mg/kg) were administered in the mice. The extract showed dose-dependent inhibition on percentage parasitemia. There was significant (P ˂ 0.05)
reduction in the parasitemia at all administered doses. METH exhibited significant (P ˂ 0.05) increase in packed cell volume (PCV) at 400 mg/kg similar to diminazene aceturate. There was also a significant (P ˂ 0.05) increase in body weight at (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) when compared to the control. In the in vitro study the n-hexane fraction revealed the highest IC50 (2.88 µg/mL) while dichloromethane fraction has the highest selectivity (13.84). Phytoconstituents present include alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates. The results revealed that the extract possess antitrypanosomal activity in Swiss mice and this justifies the folkloric use of T. heudelotti leaves in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. 

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Published

2020-12-01

How to Cite

Okpalanwaka, I. F., Adaka, I. C., Uzor, P. F., & Nwodo, N. J. (2020). Evaluation of In vivo and In vitro Screening of the Antitrypanosomal Properties of Methanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of Trichilia heudelotii Oliv. (Meliaceae): doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i12.28. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 4(12), 1196–1200. Retrieved from https://www.tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/909