Effects of the Combination of Caffeine, Nicotine, and 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on the Hippocampus of Experimental Wistar Rats

Authors

  • Adetunji O. Adebola Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
  • Fabiyi O. Sunday Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Ogunbiyi O. Esther Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Owolabi J. Oladele Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Olatunji S. Yinka Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Oyewumi S. Oluwole Department of Physiology, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Olanrewaju J. Afees Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Olayinka O. Olawole Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Arowosegbe Adeyinka Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Ajibade T. Pricilla Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v8i5.31

Keywords:

Learning, memory, hippocampus, MDMA, caffeine and nicotine

Abstract

Caffeine, nicotine, and MDMA are generally referred to as psychoactive substances which contain chemical substances that change the function of the brain and result in alteration of mood, perception, consciousness, cognition, or behavior. These substances are both rewarding and positively reinforcing which indicates a potential for inducing addiction. The hippocampus is an important part of the brain whose primary function is learning and memory. This study aimed to investigate the impact of combining caffeine, nicotine, and MDMA on the hippocampus of Wistar rats. A total of 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of eight animals. Group A served as the control and received normal saline (2 ml/kg.bw). Group B received a combination of caffeine (100 mg/kg) and nicotine (50 mg/kg), Group C received a combination of caffeine (100 mg/kg) and MDMA (10 mg/kg), and Group D received a combination of nicotine (50 mg/kg) and MDMA (10 mg/kg). The administration of substances continued for a duration of 21 days. The result showed that there was a significant increase in the level of neurotransmitters, Neuroarchitecture using different staining techniques and neurostructural changes were observed on the hippocampus, especially in the dentate gyrus across the co-administered groups. The co-administration of caffeine, nicotine, and MDMA did not cause any extensive hippocampal degeneration or localized neurodegeneration, however, there was an increase in the number of cells in the dentate gyrus which suggested a possible neurogenesis. Neurobehavioural analysis showed impairment in learning and memory.

Author Biographies

Adetunji O. Adebola, Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

addturng1809@gmail.com

Fabiyi O. Sunday, Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Dept. of anatomy, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago Iwoye Ogun State, Nigeria

Owolabi J. Oladele, Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson Snr School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Department of Anatomy, University of Global Health Equity, Kigali, Rwanda

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Published

2024-05-30

How to Cite

Adebola, A. O., Sunday, F. O., Esther, O. O., Oladele, O. J., Yinka, O. S., Oluwole, O. S., … Pricilla, A. T. (2024). Effects of the Combination of Caffeine, Nicotine, and 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on the Hippocampus of Experimental Wistar Rats. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(5), 7264–7271. https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v8i5.31