Main Article Content
Long term use of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) in insect repellents can cause some effects such as mild irritation, itching, rash, urticaria, contact dermatitis, swelling and seizures. In addition, DEET can also contaminate aquatic environments. Because of these side effects, it is necessary to look for alternative repellents. Betel leaves (Piper betle Linn.) and Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) contain essential oils that repel insects. This study aimed to develop an effective, non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and biodegradable natural insect repellent by formulating a mosquito-repellent lotion from betel leaves and citronella grass essential oils. The betel leaves and citronella grass essential oils were formulated into a lotion with three concentrations (1, 5, 10% w/w). Evaluation of lotions stored at 1% (F1), 5% (F2), and 10% (F3) concentration was conducted in 7 cycles of freeze-thaw. Lotion quality was analyzed
for organoleptic, pH, viscosity, homogeneity, stability and skin sensitivity. The evaluation results showed that the four lotion formulae were stable, did not cause skin irritation, were homogeneous, and had a pH of 7. The results of the centrifugation test showed that 1% lotion was stable, while 5% and 10% had phase separation. The protection against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes at 1hr, 2hrs and 3hrs was 68.73%, 95.83% and 100%, respectively. The repellent activity of lotions with betel leaves and citronella grass oils was concentration dependent.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Arpiwi NL, Muksin IK, Kartini NL. Essential Oil From Cymbopogon nardus and Repellant Activity Against Aedes aegypti. Biodiversitas. 2020; 21(8):3873-3878.
Legeay S, Clere N, Apaire-Marchais V, Faure S, Lapied B. Unusual modes of action of the repellent DEET in insects highlight some human side effects. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018; 825(1):92-98.
Marques dos Santos M, Hoppe-Jones C, Snyder SA. DEET Occurrence in Wastewaters: Seasonal, Spatial and Diurnal Variability-Mismatches Between Consumption Data and Environmental Detection. Environ Int. 2019; 132(105038):1-9.
Anam K, Ma’rufi I, Wahyuni D. Effect of Concentration and Time Effect of Fragrant Lemongrass Stem Extract (Cymbopogon nardus) in Spray Form as Aedes aegypti Mosquito Bioinsecticide. Multidiscip J. 2019; 2(1):12-15.
Alighiri D, Cahyono E, Tirza Eden W, Kusuma E, Imam Supardi K. Study on The Improvement of Essential Oil Quality and Its Repellent Activity of Betel Leaves Oil (Piper betle L.) from Indonesia. Orient J Chem. 2018; 34(6):2913-2926.
Astuti EJ, Basuki SA, Sabrian A, Fajriyah F. Steam and Water Distillation of Piper betle, Ocimum basilicum, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Citrus hystrix Leaves for Activity of Insect Repellent against Mosquito. Adv Heal Sci Res. 2017; 2(1):240- 246.
Islam MA, Ryu KY, Khan N, Song OY, Jeong JY, Son JH, Jamila N, Kim KS. Determination of the Volatile Compounds in Five Varieties of Piper betle L. from Bangladesh Using Simultaneous Distillation Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SDE-GC/MS). Anal Lett. 2020; 53(15):2413-2430.
Martianasari R and Hamid PH. Larvicidal, Adulticidal, and Oviposition-Deterrent Activity of Piper betle L. Essential Oil to Aedes aegypti. Vet World. 2019; 12(3):367-371.
Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Thanigaivel A, Edwin ES, Ponsankar A, Senthil-Nathan S, Selin-Rani S, Kalaivani K, Hunter WB, Duraipandiyan V, Al-Dhabi NA. Toxicological effects of chemical constituents from Piper against the environmental burden Aedes aegypti Liston and their impact on non-target toxicity evaluation against biomonitoring aquatic insects. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018; 25(11):10434-10446.
Tkachenko KVE. Prospects for the Use of Essential Oils as Repellants and/or Insecticides. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022; 6(6):831-835.
Wibowo DP, Febriani Y, Riasari H, Aulifa DL. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils of medicinal plant Cymbopogon nardus from Lembang West Java. Res J Chem Environ. 2018; 22(Special Issue 1):1-4.
Murni RL. Characteristics of the Essential Oil Content of Fragrant Citronella Plants (Cymbopogon nardus L.). Pros Semin Nas Biol di Era Pandemi COVID-19. 2020; 1(1):227-231.
Ardiana C, Mulyaningsih S, Nursuciani M, Mulyani NLS. The Use of Citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.) Plant Oil as a Natural Mosquito Lipid Compound Repellent. J Life Sci Vol. 2022; 3(1):10-18.
Khoiriyah YN and Nurminha N. Study of Citronella Oil (Cymbopogon nardus L.) against Aedes aegypti. J Kesehat. 2021; 12(2):299-305.
Shivhare RS, Kamble MA, Mahapatra DK, Ingole AR, Baheti JR. Development of mosquito repellant gel formulations from various natural volatile oils: comparative study with the marketed formulation odomos®. J Drug Deliv Ther. 2018; 8(6):106-110.
Caesar RY, Hapsari I, Dhiani BA. Formulation and Antibacterial Activity of Fennel Essential Oil Lotion (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). Media Farm J Ilmu Farm. 2014; 11(1):41-54.
Mawazi SM, Ann J, Othman N, Khan J, Alolayan SO, Al-Thagfan SS, Kaleemullah M. A Review of Moisturizers; History, Preparation, Characterization and Applications. Cosmetics. 2022; 9(3):1-19.
Ambari Y and Suena NMDS. Physical Stability Test of Lemongrass Oil Anti Mosquito Lotion Formulation. J Ilm Medicam. 2019; 5(2):111-115.
Wathoni N, Sriwidodo, Sofian FF, Narsa AC, Mutiara AN. Repellent activity of essential oils from Cananga odorata Lamk. and cymbopogon nardus L. on corn starch-based thixogel. J Young Pharm. 2018; 10(2):118-123.
Safitri CINH and Jubaidah L. Formulation and Physical Quality Test for Corn Skin Extract Lotions (Zea mays L.). J Insa Farm Indones. 2019; 2(2):175-184.
Navarro-Pérez YM, Cedeño-Linares E, Norman-Montenegro O, Ruz-Sanjuan V, Mondeja-Rivera Y, Hernández-Monzón AM, González-Bedia MM. Prediction of The Physical Stability and Quality of O/W Cosmetic Emulsions using Full Factorial Design. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res. 2021; 9(1):98-112.
Zhu Q, Pan Y, Jia X, Li J, Zhang M, Yin L. Review on the Stability Mechanism and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Encapsulating Various Additives. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2019; 18(6):1660-1675.
Mohiuddin A. Acne Protection: Measures & Miseries. Ann Clin Toxicol. 2019; 2(2):1-29.
Fitriana AY, Wahyuningrum R, Sudarso. Repellent Power And Irritation Test Lotion Formula Ethanol Extract Of Betel Leaf (Piper betle Linn) With Lanolin Based Variations Against Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes. Pharmacy. 2012; 9(2):1-9.
Aditama W, Iswandana R, Asrin T, Zulfikar, Nasrullah. Effect of Citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) Extract on Knockdown Time and Aedes aegypti Mortality by Thermal Fogging Method. Malaysian J Public Heal Med. 2021; 21(3):192-199.
Zulfikar Z, Aditama W, Sitepu F. The effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus) extract as insecticide against Aedes aegypti. Int J Mosq Res. 2019; 6(1):101-103.
Anisah A and Sukesi TW. Test the Effectiveness of Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) as Larvate Larvae of House Flies (Musca domestica). J Vektor Penyakit. 2018; 12(1):39-46.
Adibah A and Dharmana E. Larvicidal Effectiveness Test of Boiled Betle Leaf (Piper betle L.) Against Aedes aegypti Larvae : Studies in Value of Lc50, Lt50, and The Rate of Larvae Mortality. Diponegoro Med J. 2017; 6(2):244-252.
Senthil-Nathan S. A Review of Resistance Mechanisms of Synthetic Insecticides and Botanicals, Phytochemicals, and Essential Oils as Alternative Larvicidal Agents Against Mosquitoes. Front Physiol. 2020; 10(1591):1-21.
Yushananta P and Ahyanti M. The effectiveness of betle leaf (Piper betle L.) extract as a bio-pesticide for controlled of houseflies (Musca domestica L.). Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021; 9(E):895-900.
Afify A, Betz JF, Riabinina O, Lahondère C, Potter CJ. Commonly Used Insect Repellents Hide Human Odors from Anopheles Mosquitoes. Curr Biol. 2019; 29(21):3669-3680.
Alhamda S, Barlian E, Razak A, Sari M, Herawati N. Effectiveness of soursop seed extract (Annona muricata L) as a natural repellent on Aedes aegypti. Int J Innov Technol Explor Eng. 2019; 8(12):5012-5018.
WHO. Guidelines for Efficacy Testing of Mosquito Repellents for Human Skin. 2009; 1-6.